He worked his way up the ranks of the Communist Party and became General Secretary, ultimately installing himself as dictator in the wake of Vladimir Lenin’s death. Becoming Dictator. In 1902, he was arrested for coordinating a labor strike and exiled to Siberia, the first of his many arrests and exiles in the fledgling years of the Russian Revolution. In 1888, she managed to enroll him in church school in Gori. How did Stalin become dictator of the USSR? "use strict";(function(){var insertion=document.getElementById("citation-access-date");var date=new Date().toLocaleDateString(undefined,{month:"long",day:"numeric",year:"numeric"});insertion.parentElement.replaceChild(document.createTextNode(date),insertion)})(); FACT CHECK: We strive for accuracy and fairness. The Soviet Union was founded in 1922, with Lenin as its first leader. Stalin also became involved in various criminal activities, including bank heists, the proceeds from which were used to help fund the Bolshevik Party. Updated August 22, 2019 Joseph Stalin (December 18, 1878–March 5, 1953) was an important leader in the Russian Revolution who became the head of the Communist Party and dictator of the Soviet state known as the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). Terms in this set (12) Who took over the Communist party after Lenin? What is totalitarianism? He expanded the powers of the secret police, encouraged citizens to spy on one another and had millions of people killed or sent to the Gulag system of forced labor camps. Even Lenin, who was gravely ill, was helpless to regain control from Stalin. Soviet history books were rewritten to give him a more prominent role in the revolution and mythologize other aspects of his life. By 1927, Stalin was the unquestioned ruler of the Soviet Union. The couple had one son, Yakov (1907-1943), who died as a prisoner in Germany during World War II. In February 1945, the three leaders met again at the Yalta Conference in the Crimea. Joseph Stalin rose to power as General Secretary of the Communist Party in Russia, becoming a Soviet dictator after the death of Vladimir Lenin. During the second half of the 1930s, Stalin instituted the Great Purge, a series of campaigns designed to rid the Communist Party, the military and other parts of Soviet society from those he considered a threat. https://www.socialistalternative.org/lenin-original-dictator/lenin-original-dictator This only deepened Stalin's suspicion of the West, as millions of Russians died. On December 18, 1879, in the Russian peasant village of Gori, Georgia, Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili - later known as Joseph Stalin - was born. Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II tried to strengthen the Habsburg empire with his enlightened reforms, but the changes he made were met with fierce opposition. What year did he become absolute, undisputed dictator? To make matters worse, the purges of the 1930s had depleted the Soviet Army and government leadership to the point where both were nearly dysfunctional. It's estimated that Stalin killed as many as 20 million people, directly or indirectly, through famine, forced labor camps, collectivization and executions. As a teen, he earned a scholarship to attend a seminary in the nearby city of Tblisi and study for the priesthood in the Georgian Orthodox Church. Stalin chose not to return home, but stayed in Tiflis, devoting his time to the revolutionary movement. Subscribe for fascinating stories connecting the past to the present. As a boy, Stalin contracted smallpox, which left him with lifelong facial scars. When the resolution to support South Korea came to a vote in the Security Council, the Soviet Union was unable to use its veto. However, he ruled by terror, and millions of his own citizens died during his brutal reign. In this capacity, Goebbels was charged with presenting Hitler to ...read more, At the height of the 1932-33 Ukrainian famine under Joseph Stalin, starving people roamed the countryside, desperate for something, anything to eat. Soviet dictator Joseph Stalin terrorised his own people, but for the first time a survey suggests that most Russians view him favourably. In 1906, Stalin married Ekaterina “Kato” Svanidze (1885-1907), a seamstress. By March, the tsar had abdicated the throne and was placed under house arrest. But like many people in higher politics, he was at the same time quite ordinary — a small man placed in extraordinary circumstances. Joseph Stalin ruled the Soviet Union for more than two decades, instituting a reign of death and terror while modernizing Russia and helping to defeat Nazism. Match. https://www.history.com/topics/russia/joseph-stalin. During the 1930s he started five year development plans and focused on improving the country’s industry.. One of the Communist leader’s greatest tasks was to collectivize farming. After leaving school, Stalin became an underground political agitator, taking part in labor demonstrations and strikes. Stalin suffered another foreign policy defeat after he encouraged North Korean Communist leader Kim Il Sung to invade South Korea, believing the United States would not interfere. The son of Besarion Jughashvili, a cobbler, and Ketevan Geladze, a washerwoman, Stalin was a frail child. At the end Stalin emerged as dictator of the USSR. Stalin believed Communism should be imposed on Russia quickly if was to become industrial nation- NEP abandoned Claimed that Russia was 50-100 years behind advanced industrial nations- called for command economy- Introduced series of economic programs to get rid Russia's backwardness- Five Year Plans; gov. Stalin gained infamy being associated with the 1907 Tiflis bank robbery, which resulted in several deaths and 250,000 rubles stolen (approximately $3.4 million in U.S. dollars). He was one of three recognized leaders after Lenin's death in January, 1924. Test. The camps, like prisons throughout the world, were used to house criminals. He was the subject of flattering artwork, literature and music, and his name became part of the Soviet national anthem. Though not a significant post at the time, it gave Stalin control over all party member appointments, which allowed him to build his base. Millions of farmers refused to cooperate with Stalin’s orders and were shot or exiled as punishment. Though his popularity from his successes during World War II was strong, Stalin's health began to deteriorate in the early 1950s. After the First World War, things only got worse; the army suffered many huge defeats. For a time, he found work as a tutor and later as a clerk at the Tiflis Observatory. By 1924, he had placed many of his supporters in key positions. Some of the members were socialists who introduced him to the writings of Karl Marx and Vladimir Lenin. He led the opposition to Stalin in the Politburo. He also developed a cruel streak for those who crossed him. He is considered as one of the leaders who were responsible for the death of many people during their rule. It's also speculated he was asked to leave due to his political views challenging the tsarist regime of Nicholas II. created + implemented 3 starting in 1928 By the late 1920s, he had become dictator of the Soviet Union. But in April 1917, Bolshevik leader Lenin denounced the provisional government, arguing that the people should rise up and take control by seizing land from the rich and factories from the industrialists. In 1933, the year Adolf Hitler (1889-1945) became chancellor of Germany, he named Joseph Goebbels (1897-1945), his trusted friend and colleague, to the key post of minister for public enlightenment and propaganda. Joseph Stalin. Lenin was exiled in Switzerland in 1912 when he appointed Joseph Stalin to serve for the Bolshevik Party on the first Central Committee. Joseph Stalin (1878-1953) was the dictator of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) from 1929 to 1953. Today, it is one of Russia's largest cities and a key industrial center. Stalin did well in school, and his efforts gained him a scholarship to Tiflis Theological Seminary in 1894. Find out more about his life and rise to power in this video. In 1939, on the eve of World War II, Joseph Stalin and German dictator Adolf Hitler (1889-1945) signed the German-Soviet Nonaggression Pact. The forced collectivization also led to widespread famine across the Soviet Union that killed millions. What is totalitarianism? Increasingly, Stalin appointed his loyalists to the Politburo. For the most part, Stalin was another anti-Semite at … He was arrested multiple times between 1902 and 1913, and subjected to imprisonment and exile in Siberia. The respected Levada Center … His development plan was centered on government control of the economy and included the forced collectivization of Soviet agriculture, in which the government took control of farms. During his reign, he acquired vast amounts of land through ruthless means, creating a centrally controlled government. Accounts differ as to the reason; official school records state he was unable to pay the tuition and withdrew. He was handsome, charismatic and a favorite of Lenin. Joseph Stalin was born Josef Vissarionovich Djugashvili on December 18, 1878, or December 6, 1878, according to the Old Style Julian calendar (although he later invented a new birth date for himself: December 21, 1879), in the small town of Gori, Georgia, then part of the Russian empire. Learn. Cities were renamed in his honor. His father was a shoemaker and alcoholic who beat his son, and his mother was a laundress. Stalin is famous for his extremities used to build and sustain Communism in USSR. Joseph Stalin, secretary-general of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1922–53) and premier of the Soviet state (1941–53), who for a quarter of a century dictatorially ruled the Soviet Union and transformed it into a major world power. All Rights Reserved. Created by. Stalin aligned with the United States and Britain in World War II (1939-1945) but afterward engaged in an increasingly tense relationship with the West known as the Cold War (1946-1991). Ekaterina perished from typhus when her son was an infant. Stalin's mother, a devout Russian Orthodox Christian, wanted him to become a priest. That is an easy one, though I think it might be too late. A dictator’s death: how Stalin, Hitler, Mao and other self-styled strongmen met their ends; Churchill, Stalin and Roosevelt: the big three’s war of words; Rise of a dictator: how did Hitler gain power and become the führer of Germany? 70% of Central Comittee elected at the 17th Party Congress arrested and shot 1108/1966 delegates of the Congress shot (the ones that voted for Kirov) This shows grudge, revenge in eliminating past and future opponents. Stalin ruled by terror and with a totalitarian grip in order to eliminate anyone who might oppose him. Get rid of your political enemies... ... or, more cleverly, embrace them in the hope that the bear hug … Many were ...read more, During the late 1940s and early 1950s, the prospect of communist subversion at home and abroad seemed frighteningly real to many people in the United States. By now, the British and Americans were suspicious of Stalin's intentions and wanted to avoid Soviet involvement in a postwar Japan. Why Did Stalin Become a Dictator? Most of the people were peasants, and there was very little industry. But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us! What started in 1917 Russia, became a global revolution, taking ...read more, The question of where Russia begins and ends—and who constitutes the Russian people—has preoccupied Russian thinkers for centuries. Flashcards. Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (born Ioseb Besarionis dzе Jughashvili, 18 December [O.S. He left a legacy of death and horror, even as he turned a backward Russia into a world superpower. © 2021 Biography and the Biography logo are registered trademarks of A&E Television Networks, LLC. In 1925, the Russian city of Tsaritsyn was renamed Stalingrad. He later became the unquestioned and de facto dictator of the Soviet Union and was shockingly ruthless when it came to killing his people. The question is, why did so many people decide to trusts man, who grew Into another world known dictator? How Joseph Stalin Starved Millions in the Ukrainian Famine, How Photos Became a Weapon in Stalin's Great Purge. Write. At first, he had people removed from power through bureaucratic shuffling and denunciations. government which take total control over every aspect of public and private life. In a similar manner, Stalin at first supported the creation of Israel and then later withdrew his support. During his years in power, he served as both General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1922–1952) and Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Soviet Union (1941–1953). Stalin at first betrayed his fellow communists in China … Additionally, Stalin built a cult of personality around himself in the Soviet Union. Stalin Becomes Dictator, From 1922 to 1927, Stalin began his ruthless climb to the head of the government. Stalin was convinced of Hitler's integrity and ignored warnings from his military commanders that Germany was mobilizing armies on its eastern front. His Red Army helped defeat Nazi Germany during World War II. Stalin believed that collectivism would accelerate food production, but the peasants resented losing their land and working for the state. Ivan the Terrible was the first tsar of all Russia. While there he began secretly reading the work of German social philosopher and “Communist Manifesto” author Karl Marx, becoming interested in the revolutionary movement against the Russian monarchy. Because of this, Stalin began a quest for greatness and respect. Joseph Stalin, secretary-general of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1922–53) and premier of the Soviet state (1941–53), who for a quarter of a century dictatorially ruled the Soviet Union and transformed it into a major world power. Stalin, who grew increasingly paranoid in his later years, died on March 5, 1953, at age 74, after suffering a stroke. In 1948, Stalin ordered an economic blockade on the German city of Berlin, in hopes of gaining full control of the city. Millions were killed in forced labor or starved during the ensuing famine. These fears came to define–and, in some cases, corrode–the era’s political culture. The fledgling Soviet government went through a violent period after the revolution as various individuals vied for position and control. Stalin Becomes Dictator. When the Nazi blitzkrieg struck in June 1941, the Soviet Army was completely unprepared and immediately suffered massive losses. A perennial viral favorite every election year is a statement attributed to Joseph Stalin, leader of the U.S.S.R. from 1922 through 1953, about voting vs. who wins in elections. In the years following the death of Vladimir Lenin, he rose to become dictator of the Soviet Union, using a combination of manipulation and terror to destroy his opposition. Created by. Both British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt argued that such an action would result in heavy casualties. For a time, the revolutionaries supported a provisional government, believing a smooth transition of power was possible. This essentially reduced the peasants back to serfs, as they had been during the monarchy. The GULAG's primary purpose, though, was to gain control of the population t… Soviet dictator Joseph Stalin terrorised his own people, but for the first time a survey suggests that most Russians view him favourably. Stalin also fathered several children out of wedlock. Born into poverty, Stalin became involved in revolutionary politics, as well as criminal activities, as a young man. In 1922, as general secretary of the Communist Party, he worked behind the scenes . He made shrewd appointments and consolidated his power so that eventually nearly all members of the central command owed their position to him. Learn. When Lenin died in 1924 Joseph Stalin fought for the leadership of the party. Stalin, however, did not want ‘independence’ to go too far and become real independence. Stalin grew up poor and an only child. Stalin forced rapid industrialization and the collectivization of agricultural land, resulting in millions dying from famine while others were sent to labor camps. As the General Secretary, he built his power base while marking out the potential rivals and those who looked down on him since he was not as educated as his fellow colleagues in Lenin's Government. Bukharin was something of a darling in the Party. Did you know? Under Stalin, the Soviet Union was transformed from a peasant society into an industrial and military superpower. During the 1930s and ’40s he promoted certain aspects of Russian history, some Russian national and cultural heroes, and the Russian language, and he held the Russians up as the elder brother for the non-Slavs to emulate. He demanded the Allies open a second front against Germany, which they agreed to in the spring of 1944. Many were exiled abroad to Europe and the Americas, including presumed Lenin successor Leon Trotsky. In February 1917, the Russian Revolution began. You should have started in childhood. As war clouds gathered over Europe in 1939, Stalin made a seemingly brilliant move, signing a nonaggression pact with Germany's Adolf Hitler and his Nazi Party. DOWNLOAD BIOGRAPHY'S JOSEPH STALIN FACT CARD. READ MORE: How Photos Became a Weapon in Stalin's Great Purge. His had filled the administration of the Party with people who were loyal to him. They had two children, a boy and a girl (his only daughter, Svetlana Alliluyeva, caused an international scandal when she defected to the United States in 1967). Earlier, he had ordered the Soviet representative to the United Nations to boycott the Security Council because it refused to accept the newly formed Communist People's Republic of China into the United Nations. PLAY. Three years later, in November 1917, the Bolsheviks seized power in Russia. He served as the General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1922 until his death in 1953. Best known as the "Elephant Man," Joseph Carey Merrick has been the subject of many medical studies, documentaries and works of fiction. STUDY. In 1922, Stalin was appointed to the newly created office of general secretary of the Communist Party. https://www.biography.com/dictator/joseph-stalin. By the time Stalin regained his resolve, German armies occupied all of the Ukraine and Belarus, and its artillery surrounded Leningrad. government which take total control over every aspect of public and private life. Spell. Stalin was eventually denounced by his successor, Nikita Khrushchev, in 1956. Joseph Conrad was an author who is remembered for novels like 'Heart of Darkness,' which drew on his experience as a mariner and addressed profound themes of nature and existence. 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